The article below on Parthian and Central Asian martial music was sent to on January 8, 2012. The author of this article is Meshkeris, Veronika (St. Petersburg/Russia)

===============================================================Rich iconographic material and written sources testify to the highly developed musical culture of Eastern Parthian territories (Parthyena and Margiana). The famous rhythm from Old Nasi, irrespective of the problem of their provenance, are a result of the perception of Hellenistic culture by the early Arsacida.

An East-Hellenistic synthesis of the instruments on the Nisa rhythm and Western Parthian parallels on terracottas. A list of Parthian musical instruments in Herodian and Plutarch, the “Asiatic cither” (Strabo), representations on Parthian coins. The minstrely at the courts of Parthian nobles (and rhythm from Olbia). “Musical” friezes of the Nisa rhythm and friezes of Parthian and Kushan architecture, their common genesis, Hellenistic-Eastern synthesis, frieze compositions with the depiction of musicians holding various instruments which alternate with decoration elements (grapes, hop) connected with ritual libation as a trait in common in the architecture of Hellenized East (Hatra, Surkh Kotal, Taxila, Fayaz-tepe, Khalchayan etc.). A problem of “musical” friezes in the architecture of palace-temple complexes in connection with further reconstruction and study of architectonics of standard monumental structures.

Unlike Parthyena, Margiana was a centre of distinctive stringed instruments and of peculiar funeral rites of Musian character. The short lute was a traditional folk instrument there (its local name was brabat).

The ritual theme of the well-known vase from Old merv and ritual scenes depicting musicians on objects of Eastern tereutics, which are connected with Mihragan, an Iranian and Middle Asian analogy of the Dionysus festivals. The musical culture of Eastern Parthia in the light of new research of hellenistic topics and of the instrumental art of Bactria  (Takht-i Sanguin, Zart-tepe, Old Termez,