Language and Literature
- Professor Mohammad-Amin Riahi-Khoi: Language and Literature in an Ottoman Turkish Context (in Peraian only) –زبان و ادب پارسی در قلمرو عثمانی : Part A, Part B, Part C, Part D, Part E, Part F, Part G, Part H, Part I, Part J, Part K, Part L, Part M, Part N.
- Osman G. Özgudenli: Persian Manuscripts in Ottoman and Modern Turkish Libraries.
Cultural and Linguistic Links between Iranic and Turkic peoples
The word “Turk” was indeed used, but in much the same way as “fellah” is used in modern Arabic—to denote the ignorant peasant—and its application to the Ottoman gentleman of Istanbul would have been an insult. It is in the course of the 19th century, and under Western influence, that these two ideas appear and make headway: the idea of Turkey as a country inhabited by a certain people and constituting a natural entity, and the idea of the Turks as a nation, distinct from the Ottoman dynasty and Empire.