The Achaemenid Empire at its maximum extent at the time of Cyrus the Great seen in the context of modern Asia, Africa and Europe in 529 BC (Courtesy of Sepehr Mamoi).


The Achaemenid Empire at the time of Cambyses (son of Cyrus the Great) circa 522 BC. Note the conquest of Egypt (Courtesy of Sepehr Mamoi).


 The Achaemenid Empire at the time of Xerxes (circa 490 BC). Note expansion into Central Asia that was accomplished by Xerxes’ father, Darius the Great. Darius and his son Xerxes attempts at expanding Achaemenid political, economic and military into Greece (and hence Europe) were unsuccessful and marked the high tide of Achaemenid power (Courtesy of Sepehr Mamoi).