Readers interested in the relationships between ancient Iran and Japan are invited to read the following article in Persian by Dr. Jamshid Jamshidi:
For more English-language articles on the relationships between ancient Iran and Japan, readers are referred to Dr. Jamshid Jamshidi’s SHAMOGOLOPARVANEH website which hosts the following articles by Japanese scholar, Dr. Masato Tojo:
- Zen Buddhism and Persian Culture: An investigation on the Simurgh (Persian Phoenix) culture and Zen Buddhism (pdf)
- An Introduction to the Simorgh Culture and Mithraism in East Asia (pdf)
- Manichaeism Esoteric Buddhism and Oriental Theosophy (pdf)
- Ancient Persia: Influences on Ancient Chinese and Japanese Calendars
Japanese scroll calligraphy of Bodhidharma by Hakuin Ekaku 白隠慧鶴, 1686–1769. The Bodhidharma is said to be a blue-eyed Persian 碧眼胡僧(Hekigan-kosō) in Zen tradition. “Blue-eyed Persian” means Hellenized Persian, and/or a Persian who has much knowledge about western culture. Mithra’s magi are such Persians (Picture and information from Dr. Masato Tojo on Zen Buddhism and Persian culture).