Readers interested in the relationships between ancient Iran and Japan are invited to read the following article in Persian by Dr. Jamshid Jamshidi:

Japan and Ancient Iran (in Persian)-ژاپن و ايران باستان(pdf)

For more English-language articles on the relationships between ancient Iran and Japan, readers are referred to Dr. Jamshid Jamshidi’s SHAMOGOLOPARVANEH website which hosts the following articles by Japanese scholar, Dr. Masato Tojo: 


Japanese scroll calligraphy of Bodhidharma by Hakuin Ekaku 白隠慧鶴, 1686–1769. The Bodhidharma is said to be a blue-eyed Persian 碧眼胡僧(Hekigan-kosō) in Zen tradition. “Blue-eyed Persian” means Hellenized Persian, and/or a Persian who has much knowledge about western culture. Mithra’s magi are such Persians (Picture and information from Dr. Masato Tojo on Zen Buddhism and Persian culture).