The Distinguished SHEDET journal (the leading archaeology and history journal of the Department of Archaeology of Fayoum University, Egypt) has published the followed peer-reviewed article by Bede Dwyer, Manouchehr Moshtagh Khorasani and Kaveh Farrokh (download article in link below):

Dwyer, B., Farrokh, K., & Khorasani, M.M. (2021). Sassanid Armor: Background, Development and Technology. SHEDET [Fayoum University, Faculty of Archaeology], Issue No 7, pp.145-183.

The research required for this paper was a complex research undertaking, taking three and half years of analysis of ancient texts, historical accounts, new archaeological finds and stone reliefs depicting Sassanian armor. This has resulted in the most comprehensive research study published to date on Sassanian armor.

The synopsis of the article is as follows:

The aim of this article is to study the Sassanid armor types and their construction methods based on Sassanid rock reliefs, surviving fragments, armor depicted on Sassanid dishes and stone statues in Iran. The art construction methods of different armor types used by the Sassanids during their rule and how Sassanids influenced the development of armor technology and were influenced by other cultures. Sassanids such laminated armor (lamellar armor and their origins are discussed in the article. Hand, arm and leg protection as well as different helmet types used by Sassanids are also analyzed. These include type, four (strap helmets) type and lamellar helmet type. Different types of shields used by Sassanids are also discussed in the article. archaeological finds, stone and rock reliefs as well as Sassanid ico describe different types of armor used by Sassanids.

An excellent depiction of late Sassanian knights at Taghe Bostan. The figure is often identified as Khosrow II “Parviz” and his steed, Sabdiz (Picture source: Farrokh, page 225, Shadows in the Desert: Ancient Persia at War-Персы: Армия великих царей-سایه‌های صحرا).  Despite weathering and the passage of over 1400 years, the Taghe Bostan vault provides detailed representation of late Sassanian knights, notably (mail) armor and helmets.

Readers wishing to consult a resource page on Sassanian militaria can consult the below:

Ardashir I in a lance-joust scene at Firuzabad which ciommemorates the great battle in which the House of Sassan overthrew the Parthians in 224 CE. Note the large hair bundle (Korymbos) on top of Ardashir I’s head  (Picture source: Photo taken by Farrokh in August 2001 and shown in Kaveh Farrokh’s lectures at The University of British Columbia’s Continuing Studies Division Stanford University’s WAIS 2006 Critical World Problems Conference Presentations on July 30-31, 2006). Despite weathering and the passage of over 14 centuries, the Firuzabad panel provides detailed representations of early Sassanian (and Parthian) knights, notably (mail) armor and the lance joust.

For more academic articles on Sassanian military equipment and history, readers can access the the following articles also posted in